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With radiocarbon dating

It is an essential technology that is heavily involved in archaeology and should be explored in greater depth.Radiocarbon dating uses the naturally occurring isotope Carbon-14 to approximate the age of organic materials. Often, archaeologists use graves and plant remains to date sites.Radiocarbon dating was the first chronometric technique widely available to archaeologists and was especially useful because it allowed researchers to directly date the panoply of organic remains often found in archaeological sites including artifacts made from bone, shell, wood, and other carbon based materials.In contrast to relative dating techniques whereby artifacts were simply designated as "older" or "younger" than other cultural remains based on the presence of fossils or stratigraphic position, 14C dating provided an easy and increasingly accessible way for archaeologists to construct chronologies of human behavior and examine temporal changes through time at a finer scale than what had previously been possible.Radiocarbon dating, also known as carbon-14 dating, is a radioactive decay-based method for determining the age of organic remains that lived within the past 50,000 years.Most carbon-14 is created from nitrogen-14 in the earth’s upper atmosphere as a consequence of cosmic ray bombardment.Regardless of the particular 14C technique used, the value of this tool for archaeology has clearly been appreciated.Desmond Clark (1979:7) observed that without radiocarbon dating "we would still be foundering in a sea of imprecisions sometime bred of inspired guesswork but more often of imaginative speculation." And as Colin Renfrew (1973) aptly noted over 30 years ago, the "Radiocarbon Revolution" transformed how archaeologists could interpret the past and track cultural changes through a period in human history where we see among other things the massive migration of peoples settling virtually every major region of the world, the transition from hunting and gathering to more intensive forms of food production, and the rise of city-states.

For example, rootlet intrusion, soil type (e.g., limestone carbonates), and handling of the specimens in the field or lab (e.g., accidental introduction of tobacco ash, hair, or fibers) can all potentially affect the age of a sample.Sample preparation and measurement Radiocarbon dating is performed on a variety of sample types; optimum sample sizes are listed in Table 1 below.For samples such as sediment and DOC in water, the sample size depends on the organic carbon content.Please discuss your proposal with the appropriate ANSTO Contact Scientist before submitting your proposal as they will assist you in making the correct capability selection.Capability selections Selecting the right capability depends on your sample type, or the form in which you wish to send the sample.

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Radiocarbon analyses are carried out at specialized laboratories around the world (see a list of labs at: When a biological organism dies, the radioactive carbon in its body begins to break down or decay.

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